Gazetteer of the State of New York: Embracing a Comprehensive View of the Geography, Geology, and General History of the State, and A Complete History and Description of Every County, City, Town, Village, and Locality, by J. H. French, Published by Pearsall Smith, Syracuse, N.Y.: 1860; pp. 295-306.
This county was formed from Clinton, March 1, 1799, and a corner was taken off in the erection of Franklin co. in 1808. It lies upon Lake Champlain in the N. E. part of the Sate; is centrally distant 100 miles from Albany, and contains 1,926 square miles. It is by far the most broken and mountainous county in the State. With the exception of a narrow strip of level land along the shore of Lake Champlain, nearly the whole co. is of an Alpine character. High, rocky peaks, and immense mountain masses, abounding in wild, broken crags and stupendous precipices, and separated by narrow ravines and deep gorges, form the general characteristics of the landscape. With the exception of the Black Mountain, of North Carolina, and the White Mountain group, of New Hampshire, the mountains of this co. attain a higher elevation than any others belonging to the great Appalachian system; and, taking into consideration their great number of lofty peaks, they surpass in magnitude all other groups E. of the Mississippi. The mountains seem thrown together without regard to order or system; and from this fact, and the frequent misapplication of names, much confusion has arisen in attempting to describe them.
The 5 mountain ranges N. of the Mohawk valley extend through portions of this co., and terminated upon the shores of Lake Champlain. They all have a general N.E. and S. W. direction, rising successively higher toward the N. until they culminate in the most northerly range. The axes of these ranges are nearly parallel, and are respectively about 8 mi. apart. They are not always distinct and continuous, but in some places their lateral spurs interlock, and in others their continuity is broken by the intervention of valleys and brief intervals of lowland. They are not regularly serrated, but appear to consist of groups of sharp pointed peaks connected by immense ridges. The principal mountain masses appear to extend in a due N. and S. direction, and are thus placed obliquely in the range of which they form a part. Single mountains are often sufficiently large t occupy the whole intervening space between the ranges, thus destroying the continuity of the valleys and reducing them to narrow, isolated ravines. This arrangement of mountains, in regard to the ridges, affords the key to the peculiar plan of the construction of this whole mountain system. The most southerly of the 5 ranges barely enters the extreme S. E. corner o the co. It is known as the Palmertown or Luzerne Mts. It has also sometimes been called the Black Mountain Range and the Tongue Mts. It constitutes the highlands which rise upon both sides of Lake George and upon the narrow peninsula between the Lake George Outlet and Lake Champlain. Mt. Defiance, the extremity of the ridge, has an elevation of about 750 feet above the lake. The second range, known as the Kayaderosseras, extends through the S. E. part of Schroon and the center of Crown Point, ending in the high cliff which overlooks Bulwagga Bay, and is elevated about 1,150 feet above the surface of the lake. Along the course of this range, in Schroon, is a cluster of mountain peaks, the highest of which, Mt. Pharaoh, is 3,500 to 4,000 feet above tide. The third range occupies the W. and N. parts of Schroon, and extends through the N. part of Moriah and the center of Westport, ending in the high promontory of Split Rock, in the S. part of Essex. Bald Mountain, in Westport, one of the most noted peaks of this range, attains an elevation of 2,065 feet above tide. This range takes the name of the Schroon Mts. From the principal lake which lies at its foot.
The fourth range extends through the central parts of Minerva and N. Hudson, the S. E. corner of Keene and Lewis, the N.W. part of Elizabethtown, and the center of Willsborough, ending in the high bluffs which border upon Perou Bay. It might with propriety be called the Boquet Range, from the principal river which flows at hits base. Dix Peak, in N. Hudson, the highest mountain in this range, attains an elevation of 5,200 feet above tied, and, next to Mt. Marcy, is the highest point in the co. Nipple Top has an elevation of 4,900 feet. Raven Hill, in Elizabethtown, and Mt. Discovery, in Lewis, each attain atn elevation of over 2,000 feet. The fifth range extends through Newcomh, Keene, Jay, Lewis, and Chesterfield, ending in the rocky promontory of Trembleau Point. It has sometimes been called the Clinton Range, but it is more widely known as the Adirondack Range. Mt. Marcy, the highest peak of this range, and the highest land in the State, has an elevation of 5467 feet above tide. Mounts McMartin, McIntyre, and San-da-no-na, belonging to this range, are each upward of 5000 feet high. A spur of this range extends northward on the borders of Jay and Chesterfield, in a high, unbroken ridge, with a mean elevation of about 2,000 feet above tide.
North of the Adirondack Range the mountains are not disposed in regular ranges, but are scattered in groups over a large space of country. These groups, however, lie in a line parallel to the other ranges, and for convenience of description they might be considered under the head of the ''Au Sable Range.'' Mt. Seward, the highest peak, 5,100 feet above title, is situated just beyond the limits of the co. Whiteface, in Wilmington, has an elevation of 4,555 feet.
The rocks of Essex co. are primary, consisting of granite, gneiss, and by hypersthene. The mouNtains generally are composed of huge masses of naked rocks, more or lees disintegrated by the action of the elements. Nearly the whole mountain region is composed of this primitive rock. Along the base of the mountains, on the E., appear the Trenton limestone and Utica slate; while upon the immediate borders of the lake are found the clayey masses of the tertiary formation. In the primary rocks, among the mountains, are immense beds of rich magnetic iron ore, some of which have been extensively worked, though generally in a very rude and primitive manner. Te iron produced from this ore has been subjected to the most severe tests, and has been pronounced equal to the best which is produced in the world.
The S. W. portion of the co. is drained by the Hudson and its principal branch, the Schroon River. These streams take their rise upon the highest peaks of the Adirondack and Schroon Ranges, and flow through the winding valleys that lie at their base. Upon the E. Putnams Creek drains the region between the Luzerne and Kayaderosseras Ranges; Mill Brook, between the Kayaderosseras and Schroon; and the Boquet River, between the Schroon and Boquet Ranges. The Au Sable, flowing along the N. base of the Adirondack Range, drains the N. portion of the co. The valleys of these streams are generally narrow, and are bounded by steep banks, which are not unfrequently huge masses of precipitous or overhanging rocks
Lakes Champlain and George lie partly in this co., and more than 100 small lakes lie wholly within its limits. The greater part of these are comprised in three groups, lying near the base of the principal mountain peaks. The first of these groups surrounds Mt. Marcy; the second, Mt. Pharaoh; and the third, Whiteface. Many others are found scattered along the whole course of the mountain ranges. These lakes are generally long and narrow; and Prof. Emmons says “that, instead of occupying shallow basins scooped out of the softer materials. -- earth and the ordinary slates and and shales. – they lie in chasms formed by uplifts and fractures in the primary rock.” Many of these lakes have precipitous banks, presenting a great variety of wild and picturesque scenery. The soil along Lake Champlain consists of a stiff, hard clay, alternating with a dark loam and gravel, and, in the narrow valleys, of disintegrated rocks. Upon the mountains the soil is thin and light, many of the peaks being masses of naked rocks, destitute of both soil and vegetation. The declivities of the hills are generally wooded, but not very heavily. Three-fourths of the entire surface of the co. is too rough and broken for cultivation
Farming, iron mining, and the manufacture of iron from the ore, constitute the leading pursuits; and the immense mineral wealth of this section must for centuries continue to afford an object of profitable investment. In the infancy of the settlement, and until the supply became exhausted, the manufacture and exportation of lumber and staves to the Quebec market formed the leading, and, in some neighborhoods, almost the sole, objects of industry. Rafts of great size were formed in the coves and sheltered points along the lake shore, and were wafted by sails and oars to the Richlieu River, and down that stream and the St. Lawrence to Quebec, where they were transferred to ships for the British market. The completion of the Champlain Canal gave a new impulse to lumbering; but the timber suitable for exportation is now nearly exhausted, except on the extreme W. borders of the co. The logs of this latter region are floated down the Saranac, Racket, Hudson, and other streams, to some convenient place for sawing; and large sums have been appropriated by the State for improving the channels of these rivers for this purpose. Tanneries, within the last few years, have greatly increased in the woody sections of the State, and about a dozen of them are located in this co. The iron manufacturing business of this region was commenced at Willsborough Falls in 1801, and now forms one of the leading pursuits of the people. Iron ore is exported from this co. in large quantities to Pittsburgh and other distant localities, to be mixed with other ores. The manufacture of sash and blinds, tubs, pails, and other articles of pine and cedar, starch, paper, and black lead, receives considerable attention. Ship-building, to some extent, has been carried on in Essex and Willsborough.
The county seat is located at Elizabethtown, situated upon the Boquet, about 8 mi. W. of the lake. It contains the courthouse, jail, and county clerk's office. These buildings are plain and substantial. The poorhouse is located upon a farm of 100 acres, in Essex, l0 ½ mi. N. E. of Elizabethtown. The average number of inmates is 70, supported at a cost of 62 cts. per week each. The farm yields a revenue of about $1,200.
There are 2 papers now published in the county.
In 1609, Samuel Champlain, with two attendants, accompanied a party of Canadian Indians on an expedition against the Five Nations. On the 4th of July his party entered the lake which now bears his name, and on the 30th they met their enemies. A sanguinary battle ensued, the fate of which was decided by the firearms of the whites, then for the first time used within the limits of the State. This act of unprovoked hostility on the part of Champlain laid the foundation for the long and bloody wars between the Five Nations and the French, and rendered the former the willing and steadfast friends and allies of the English. The whole region bordering upon the lake was claimed, by constructive title, by both France and England; and during the wars that ensued it became the great battle ground for supremacy, and the principal highway for war parties in their mutual incursions upon the defenseless frontier settlements, Fort Frederick was erected by the French at Crown Point in 1731. This measure was met by remonstrance, but no open resistance, on the part of the English. Previous to the erection of the fort, French settlements had commenced in various places along both shores of the lake. These settlements had made considerable progress, and thriving villages had sprung up, before they were finally broken up by invading armies. Still more extended schemes of settlement were planned, and extensive grants of land were made upon the same condition as the French grants in Canada. Soon after their first occupation, the French caused a survey of the lake and its shores to be made by Sieur Anger, surveyor to the King; and the work seems to have been carefully done. In 1755 the French advanced 12 mi. nearer to the English settlements, and commenced the fortification of Ticonderoga upon a point that entirely commanded the passage of the lake. The fort was named by them “Carillon;” but it is now generally known by the Indian name of Ticonderoga. Upon it vast sums of money were afterward expended by both the French and English, and it became the most formidable fortress in America. The French here made a stand against the advances of the English; and when at length it was found to be no longer tenable, Crown Point and all the posts along the lake were at once abandoned.
The repeated incursions of the French and Indians into the English settlements, and the continual advancements of the French military posts, at length aroused the attention of the English Government and led to the conviction that the very existence of the frontier settlements depended upon the complete overthrow of the French power in America. One of the great expeditions of 1755 was directed against Crown Point. The English troops, under the command of Gen. Lyman, built Fort Lyman--afterward Fort Edward--on the Hudson, and, under Sir Wm. Johnson, who assumed the command, advanced to the head of Lake George. Here, learning that the French were fortifying Ticonderoga and that they had received large reinforcements, Sir William chose a commanding position end fortified his camp. In the mean time, Baron Dieskau, the French commander, at the head of a superior force, endeavored to cut off his communication with Fort Lyman. A body of provincial troops, under Col. Williams, of Mass., and of Indians, under the famous Mohawk chief Hendrick, thrown out as an advance guard by Sir Wm., fell into an ambush, and the whole party were out to pieces, and the two loaders killed. The French immediately attacked the English camp, but were repulsed with great loss, and the retreating fugitives were mostly killed or taken prisoners by a party of fresh English troops from Fort Lyman. Sir Wm. did not follow up his success, but spent the remainder of the season in constructing Fort Wm. Henry on the site of his camp, leaving the French to strengthen their works at Crown Point and Ticonderoga without molestation. No general expedition was projected during 1756, and the only active warfare was carried on by adventurous parties of rangers.
From this time to the close of the war, and again during the Revolution, this co. was the theater of important military events. We have space only for a brief chronological recapitulation of the principal ones as they occurred. The partisan warfare, with varying success, continued through the winter end spring of 1756-57. In July, Montcalm, Gov, of Canada, assembled 9,000 men at Ticonderoga, and marched to the head of Lake George, for the purpose of reducing Fort Wm. Henry; which object he accomplished Aug. 3. In the summer of 1758 an expedition was fitted out against Ticonderoga, and was intrusted to the command of Con. Abercrombie. On the 5th of July he crossed Lake George with 17,000 men; and on the 6th the advanced guard of his army was surprised by the French, and many killed, among whom was Lord Howe, second in command. On the 8th the English army endeavored to take the fort by storm, but were repulsed with a loss of 2,000 men. In 1750, Gen. Amherst, at the head of 12,000 men, proceeded to invest Ticonderoga. The French troops having been mostly withdrawn for the defense of Quebec, the whole fortress was dismantled, and abandoned on the 30th of July. Crown Point was soon after abandoned, and the whole region came into the undisputed possession of the English. The works at Ticonderoga and Crown Point were enlarged and strengthened, at a cost of $10,000,000.
By the provisions of the Treaty of Paris, signed Feb. 10, 1783, in which the French ceded their possessions in North America to the English, the latter government was bound to respect the titles to land previously granted by the former. The proclamation of the King of Oct. 7, 1763, authorized the granting of the lands upon Lake Champlain to officers and soldiers who had served in the war. These incompatible acts led to much confusion. Overlapping claims and conflicting titles unavoidably followed; and the matter was not finally settled until after the Revolution. In the mean time, the controversy had the tendency to retard settlement, by destroying confidence in the titles by which the land could be held and conveyed.
Settlement was commenced upon the Boquet in 1765, under the auspices of Wm. Gilliland, a wealthy merchant of N. Y. Through his agency, and that of other capitalists, several miles of the lake shore between the mouth of the Boquet and Crown Point were settled, mills and roads were built and schools established. Mr. G. held a justice's commission, and for many years was the only judicial authority. The settlers whom he induced to locate upon his estate were mostly Irish.
After the cession of Canada the great fortresses on the lake were allowed to fall into partial decay, and were held by only small bodies of troops. Upon the receipt of the news of the commencement of hostilities at Lexington, a small body of troops, known as “Green Mountain Boys,” under Col. Ethan Allen, surprised and took both Ticonderoga and Crown Point in May, 1775. During the summer and autumn of the same year the expedition, under Schuyler and Montgomery, against Canada, passed down the lake, and returned the next spring, unsuccessful. During the summer of 1770, naval forces were organized upon the lake by both the British and Americans, the latter under the command of Benedict Arnold. In an engagement that ensued, the Americans were defeated, and their remaining vessels were obliged to take refuge under the guns of Fort Ticonderoga. Crown Point was dismantled, and the stores removed; and soon after it was taken possession of by the British. Mr. Gilliland and the colonists ardently embraced the American cause, and materially aided Montgomery’s army in its advance on Canada, by furnishing provisions, and, on its return, by affording relief to the sick and wounded. Mr. G’s estate was wasted by friends and foes, and finally the whole settlement was broken up by Burgoyne.
Borgoyne landed on the banks of the Boquet, June 21, 1777, and spent several days in conferences with the Indian tribes; and on the 27th the invading army advanced to Crown Point. On the 27th they invested Ticonderoga; and on the night of July 4 they took possession of ''Sugar Loaf Hill," (now Mt. Defiance,) and erected upon it a battery of heavy guns, completely commanding the fort. On the night of the 5th the Americans hastily embarked their stores and munitions of war upon bateaux, and sent them up to Skenesborough under convoy, and the main body of the army escaped into Vt. Both parties were quickly pursued, and the tide of war slowly and sullenly rolled southward, beyond the limits of the co.
In Sept. Gen. Lincoln, at the head of a body of militia stationed at Manchester, Vt., made an attack upon these works, took Mts. Hope and Defiance, released 100 American prisoners, took 293 of the enemy, and captured an armed sloop, several gun boats, and more than 200 bateaux. The fort was not taken. After the surrender of Burgoyne the place was dismantled, and the garrison retreated down the lake. The rear division of their boats, with 50 men and a large quantity of military stores, were captured by a party of “Green Mountain Boys" under Capt. Ebenezer Allen. In 1780, Gen. Haldeman, with a party of British soldiers, advanced to Ticonderoga and occupied it for some time. Maj. Carleton here made a diversion in favor of Sir John Johnson, by an attack upon Forts Anne and George. In 1781 the British fleet several times entered the lake, but retired without accomplishing any thing. In 1784, Gilliland returned to his ruined settlement and endeavored to retrieve his waning fortunes. Relinquishing his ideas of manorial greatness, he offered his lands for sale; but adverse lawsuits and treacherous friends soon dissipated the remnant of his wealth and brought his existence to a miserable close. The progress of settlement at first was not very rapid. In 1795 there were in Clinton co.--then embracing Essex--but 624 legal voters. From that time forward, however, settlement progressed with great rapidity, and several public roads were opened to facilitate it. Soon after the war an arsenal was erected at Elizabethtown. During the patriot excitement it was robbed; and since, it has been sold.
CHESTERFIELD--was formed from Willsborough, Feb. 20, 1802. It lies in the N. E. corner of the co., upon the shore of Lake Champlain. Its surface is broken and mountainous. The Jay Mountains, a northern spur of the Adirondack Range, extend northward through the W. part. This range is a continuous, high, rocky ridge, without a single pass, forming an almost impassable barrier between Chesterfield and Jay. The main Adirondack RanGe extends through the center of the town from S. W. to N. E. ending at Trembleau Point, a high, rocky bluff 1200 to 1500 feet above the surface of the lake. Bosworth Mountain and Poke-a-Moonshine, each attaining an elevation of about 3000 feet, are the two principal peaks within the limits of the town. The S. E. part is hilly. The N. E. part is a rolling table land, with a light, sandy, and unproductive soil. There are several lakes in the interior, the principal of which are Augur and Butternut Ponds. Not more than one half of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. The principal valuable minerals that have been found are iron, graphite, and a beautiful light brown marble. Schuyler Island, in the lake, belongs to this town. The Au Sable River, upon the N. border, affords a large amount of hydraulic power, and some very attractive scenery. The falls at Birmingham have a descent of 90 feet, including the rapids above the main fall. Keeseville (p. v.) is situated on both sides of the Au Sable River, its northern part being in Clinton co. It is the seat of extensive iron works and other important manufactures. The iron from the ore is made into nails, horseshoes, merchant iron, edge tools, and machinery. The village has a bank, an academy, and 5 churches. Pop. according to last census, 2560, of which 1370 were in Chesterfield. Port Kent, (p. v.,) on Lake Champlain, contains 25 houses; Port Douglas 5; Port Kendall 6; and Birmingham Falls 6. Matthew Adgate and sons came into town about 1792. The first church was Cong.; and the first preacher was Rev. Cyrus Comstock.
CROWN POINT--was formed March 23, 1780, and named from the old French fortress situated on the lake. Elizabethtown was taken off in 1798, Schroon and Ticonderoga in 1804, and Moriah in 1808. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, S. E. of the center of the co. A strip of nearly level land, about 4 mi. wide, extends along the lake shore. The central part of the town is broken, the hills gradually rising into the Kayaderosseras Mts. in the W. Putnams Creek, the principal stream, takes its rise in the ponds and lakes among the mountains, and upon its course are numerous falls, furnishing an abundance of water power. The soil upon the lakeshore is a deep, rich, clayey loam; and in the interior it is of a light, sandy nature. Abundance of rich iron ore is found; and in connection with it are beds of natural phosphate of lime. Graphite and black clouded marble are also found in great abundance. On the shore of the lake is a mineral spring, containing sulphates of lime and magnesia. The manufacture of iron is carried on to a great extent; there are also establishments for the manufacture of lumber, shingles, pails, sash and blinds, and woolen goods. Crown Point, (p.v.) in the E. part, on Putnams Creek, contains 2 churches and about 60 houses. Hammonds Corners contains 35 houses,and Irondale (late "Pennfield") 20. The French made the first settlement, at a very early period. The country around Fort St. Frederick, upon the point, seems to have been once the seat of thriving villages, the remains of which are still visible. All these settlements were obliterated during the French War of 1755-60. During the peace which followed, settlements were again made, and in 1777 were again destroyed. Religious services were early held in the chapel of the fort, and were continued during its military occupation.
ELIZABETHTOWN--was formed from Crown Point, Feb. 12, 1798, and was named in compliment to Elizabeth, wife of Wm. Gilliland, Parts of Moriah and Keene were taken off in 1808, and Westport in 1815. A part of Jay and Lewis were annexed Jan. 31, 1844, and a part of Lewis, Nov. 11, 1854. It is an interior town, lying a little N. of the center of the co. The Boquet Mts. occupy the N. W. and the Schroon Range the S. E. corner of the town. Raven hill, an offshoot from the former range, in the N E. corner, is 2,100 feet above tide; and the "Giant of the Valley," the highest peak of the latter range, has an elevation of 2,500 to 3,000 feet. A perpendicular precipice of 700 feet lies on the northern declivity of this mountain. The Boquet River flows in a N. E. direction through near the center of the town. Its valley, one-fourth of a mile to a mile in width, comprises the greater part of the arable land. Not more than one-fourth of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. Extensive beds of iron ore are found in various parts of the town. In the S. E. part, a hill, 200 feet high, covering 40 acres, is supposed to be nearly a solid mass of iron, except a slight covering of drift. An extensive bed of kaolin, or porcelain clay, is also found in town. The manufacture of iron is one of the leading pursuits: there are several forges in town. The soil is a sandy or gravelly loam. Elizabethtown  (p. o.) is pleasantly situated upon the Boquet River, near the foot of several high peaks. It is the co. seat, and a place of considerable trade. Pop. about 500. New Russia (p.v.) contains about 100 inhabitants. Among the first settlers were Jonah Hanchett, Sampson Smith, Herman and Joel Finney, Wareham Barber, Nathan Lewis, Hez. and Ira Phelps, Wm. Kellogg, and Gardner Simonds, who came in about 1792. The first school was taught by Dr. Kincade.The first church (Bap.) was organized in 1706 or '97.
ESSEX--was formed from Willsborough, April 4, 1805. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, N. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling in the E. and mountainous in the W. Boquet Mt., in the N. W. part, has an elevation of about 1,000 feet above the lake. Split Rock, the extremity of the Schroon Mountain Range in the S. E. corner of the town, has already been described. The Black River limestone crops out in this town, and is used both for building pur-poses and for the manufacture of lime. The Boquet River flows northerly through near thecenter of the town. Upon it are several falls, affording abundance of water power. The soil is a clayey loam upon the lake, and a light sandy loam among the mountains. Manufactures, consisting of wrought iron, nails, spikes, lumber, and woolen goods, are carried on. Essex (p. v.) has a population of about 700, Whallonsburgh (p. v.) 250, and Boquet 200. The town was first settled by Wm. Gilliland, in I765. Wm. McAuley, a relative and coadjutor of Mr. Gs., located upon the site of the present village of Essex. This settlement was broken up during the Revolution. The first church (Prot. E.) was organized in 1805.
JAY--was formed from Willsborough, Jan. 16, 1798. A part of Keene was taken off, in 1808, of Wilmington (as "Dansville") in 1821, and a part of Elizabethtown in 1844. Parts of Peru (Clinton Co.) and Chataugay (Franklin co.) were annexed, March 22,1822. It lies upon the N. border of the co., W. of the center. The Au Sable Mts., extending through the W. part, gradually decline toward the N. Mts. Hamlin, Clark, and Bassitt, each 2000 feet above tide, are the highest peaks; the Jay Mts., a N. spur of the Adirondacks, lie along the E. border. The extreme S. angle of the town is occupied by some of the most lofty and rocky peaks of the Adirondacks. The E. branch of the Au Sable flows through near the center of the town. Veins of black load have been found, but not worked. Iron ore is found in abundance. The soil is a light, sandy and gravelly loam. A mineral spring, near Upper Jay, contains iron and sulphur. The manufacture of bar iron, nails, and bloom iron is extensively carried on. Au Sable Forks, (p.v.) an iron manufacturing village, contains 70 houses; Jay (p. v.) 50, and Upper Jay (p. v.) 20. Nathaniel Mallory was the first settler, about 1796. The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1797; the first preacher was Solomon Brown.
KEENE--was formed from Elizabethtown and Jay, March 19, 1808. North Elba was taken off in 1849. It extends from the center of the co. toward the N. and W. The Adirondack Mts. extend through the center of the town and occupy nearly its entire surface, leaving little or no arable land. The principal peaks are Mt. Marcy, 5467 feet above tide; Long Pond Mt., 3000 feet; and Pitch Off, 2500 feet. The An Sable, flowing N., forms the principal drainage. The valley is so narrow that there is scarcely room for a road between the mountain and stream and freshets often occur that sweep every thing before them. Lake Golden, in the S. W. part, is 2,851 ft, above tide. Iron is found in numerous veins along the course of the river, and is manufactured to some extent. Keene (p. v.) contains about 30 houses, The first settlement was made about 1707. The M. E. church was organized in 1800, and the Cong. in 1815.
LEWIS--was formed from Willsborough, April 4, 1805, and named in honor of Morgan Lewis, then Governor of the State. Parts of Elizabethtown were taken off in 1844 and 1854, The Adirondack Mts. occupy the N. W. and the Boquet Mts. the S. E. part of the town. The latter range is not a continuous ridge through this town, but consists of several isolated peaks, the principal of which is Mt. Discovery, 2000 feet above tide. The remaining parts of the town consist of steep rocky hills and narrow valleys, and not more than one-third of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. Numerous beds of iron ore are found; but none have been extensively worked. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam. In the N. W. part is a mineral spring of some repute. Lewis (p. v.) contains 130 inhabitants, Wm. Hinckley made the first purchase of land and the first settlement, in 1706. The first church (Cong.) was formed in 1804; and the first preacher was Rev. Mr. Burbank.
MINERVA--was formed from Schroon, March 7, 1817; a part of Newcomb was taken off in 1328. It is the S. E. corner town of the co. Its surface is a high, broken upland, bordered by mountain ranges. The Boquet Range traverses the N. W. border, and the Schroon Range the S. E. The intermediate portion is hilly, with a mean elevation of 1200 to 1500 feet above tide. Nearly the whole town is still covered with forests, the settlements being confined to the S. E. corner. The soil is cold and hard, and only moderately productive. On Orrin West's farm is a cave of considerable extent. Lumbering is the loading pursuit. Olmsteadvllle (p. v.) contains 20 houses; Minerva is a p. o. The first settlers were Ebenezer West, and his sons Nathan, Ebenezer and John, in 1804. The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1810, by Elder Fort.
MORIAH--was formed from Crown Point and Elizabethtown, Feb. 12, 1808. A part of Newcomb was taken off in 1828, North Hudson in 1848, and a part of Westport was annexed, April 9, 1849. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, S. of the center of the co. A narrow strip of level land extends along the shore of the lake, from which the surface gradually rises to a height of about 500 feet, where it spreads out into a hilly plateau region, rising into mountains on the W. border. About one-half of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. The soil upon the lake is a clayey loam, and in the hilly regions a light, sandy loam. This town is very rich in minerals. Fourteen veins of iron ore have been opened, producing iron of a very superior quality: the supply seems to be inexhaustible. Black lead, and a beautiful variety of verd antique serpentine, are also found. The manufacture of iron forms one of the leading pursuits. Moriah (p. v.) contains Moriah Academy and a pop. of 275, and Port Henry (p.v.) contains a pop. of 503. The first settlers after the Revolution were Wm. McKenzie, Abel Butler, James McClane, Jabez Carpenter, G. H. and John Havens, and Joseph Curtis. The first church formed was a Cong.
NEWCOMB--was formed from Minerva and Moriah, March 15, 1828. It lies near the center of the W. border of the co. The Adirondack Range extends through the center of the town and occupies more than one-half of its entire surface. The principal peaks are Mts. Goodwin, Moore, Sandanona, and Henderson, each 3,000 to 5,000 feet above tide. The remaining part of the surface is a broken upland, with a hard, sour, unproductive soil, Among the gorges in the mountains are numerous small lakes. The Preston Ponds, Lakes Henderson, Harkness, Sanford, Harris, Dalia, Moose, and Ridge Pond, are within the limits of the town; and Lake Catlin and the Chain Lakes are on the line of Hamilton co. The Adirondack iron beds, near Lakes Sanford and Henderson, are among the most extensive in the world. One of them has been traced upon the surface for a mile in length, 700 feet in width, and has been penetrated to the depth of 40 feet without any signs of diminution in quantity or quality of ore. It forms a bar across the river, the water literally falling over an iron dam. This ore yields 75 percent. of pure metal, is easily worked, and makes an admirable quality of iron. For the manufacture of steel it surpasses all other ores in America, and equals those of the most celebrated mines of Sweden and Russia. The mountainous character of this town, and its remoteness from the great routes of public improvement, have prevented the development of its immense mineral resources. There is very little tillable land in the town. Adirondack has about 15 houses. The first settlement was commenced in 1816, by Joseph Chandler. A M. E. church was formed in 1843, and a Wes. Meth, in 1845.
NORTH ELBA--was formed from Keene, Dec. 13, 1849. It lies upon the W. border of the co., N. of the center. The Adirondack Range occupies the S. part, and a branch of the Au Sable traverses the N. E. part. At the foot of Whiteface Mt. lies Lake Placid, a beautiful sheet of water, 4 mi. long by 11 broad, and nearly divided in the center by 3 islands. The noted Adirondack or Indian Pass, partly in this town and partly in N. Elba, is a deep gorge between Mts. McIntyre and Wallface. The bottom of the pass is 2,800 feet above tide, and the mountains on each side are 1,000 to 1,500 feet higher. Wallface, forming the W. border of the pass, is bounded by a perpendicular precipice a mile in length and 800 to 1,000 feet in height. Mts. McIntyre, McMartin, and Sugar Loaf are each over 3,000 ft. high. Bennets, Connery, and Round Ponds are in the immediate vicinity. Avalanche Lake, on the E. line, is 2,901 ft. above tide. The central portion of the town is a hilly upland, and the N. W. part a rolling table land, known as “the Plains.” The Au Sable and Saranac Rivers form the principal drainage. The soil is a thin, sandy and gravelly loam. The people are principally engaged in lumbering. North Elba and Saranac Lake are p. offices. Settlement was commenced about 1800, by Elijah Bennett. The first church (Cong.) was formed in 1824; and the first preacher was the Rev. Cyrus Comstock.
NORTH HUDSON--was formed from Moriah, April 12, 1848. It is an interior town, lying a little S. of the center of the co. The Boquet Mts. occupy the central and W. portions, the principal peaks of which are Dix Peak, 5200, and Nipple Top, 4900 feet high. The Schroon Mts. traverse the E. border of the town. There are numerous small lakes in town, the principal of which are Bull Pout, Mud, Boreas, and Clear Ponds. The soil is a light, sandy loam, and not more than one-eighth of the surface is arable. The Moriah iron district extends into the E. part, and the manufacture of iron forms a leading pursuit. North Hudson (p. v.) contains 15 houses; and Dead Water Iron Works (p. o.) 10. The first settler was Benj. Pond. The first church (M. P.) was formed in 1838.
ST. ARMAND--was formed from Wilmington, April 23, 1814. It derived its name from the old French name of the Saranac River, It is the N. W. corner town of the co. Its surface is rolling and is inclined toward the N. W. The ridges extend in a N. E. and S. W. direction, and are 200 to 300 feet above the valleys. The average height of the town is 1500 to 1800 feet above tide. The Saranac, flowing in a N. E. direction, forms the principal drainage. Moose Creek, a tributary, flows through Moose Pond, a small lake covering an area of about 200 acres. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam. The people are chiefly engaged in lumbering. Bloomingdale, (p. v.,) in the N. W, corner, the only village, contains about a dozen houses. Settlements are of recent date. Among the first settlers were Daniel Crouch, Thos. and Antrim Pock, Gee. Lowrie, of recent date. Among the first settlers were Daniel Crouch, Thos. and Antrim Peck, Gee. Lowrie, Win, Stranahan, Aaron Brimhall, and Ellis and Milton Goodspeed. The first church (Bap.) was formed in 1852.
SCHROON--was formed from Crown Point, March 20, 1804. Minerva was taken off in 1817, and a part was reannexed to Crown Point, Feb. 26, 1840. It lies near the center of the S. border of the co. The W. and N. W. portions are occupied by the Schroon Range, and the S. E. portion by the Kayaderosseras Range. Mt. Pharaoh, the highest peak of the latter range, is 30 to 3500 feet above tide. There are great numbers of other elevated mountain peaks, that have never been named. Not more than one-fourth of the town is susceptible of cultivation and the greater part of the arable land is in the narrow valley of Schroon River. Schroon Lake is a fine body of water, 10 mi. long. Near the foot of Mt. Pharaoh lies a cluster of small lakes, the principal of which is Pharaoh Lake. Paradox Lake is near the center. The soil is a thin, sandy loam, Iron is found in various parts, and black lead has also been found. Schroon Lake (p. v.) contains 192 inhabitants. Schroon River is a p. o. Settlement was commenced in 1707, by Samuel Scribner, Thos. Leland, Moses Pettee, Benj. Bowker, and Simeon Rawson, all from New England. The first church (Pap.) was organized in 1830. Jehial Fox was the first preacher.
TICONDEROGA--was farmed from Crown Point, March 20, 1804. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, and is the S. E. corner town of the co. The portion between Lakes George and Champlain is the extremity of a mountain ridge ending in Mt. Defiance, 750 feet above the surface of the lake. North of this a strip of level land, about 4 mi. wide, extends along the lake shore, from which the surface gradually rises into the mountainous region which forms its W. border. About three-fourths of the town is susceptible of cultivation. The outlet of Lake George, the principal stream, in the course of a mile and a half descends 150 feet: and as the water never freezes, and its quantity does not materially change during the year, it furnishes one of the most valuable water-powers in the State. The soil is a stiff clay upon the lake, a clayey loam in the center, and a sandy loam in the W. part. The manufacture of lumber, leather, and black lead is extensively carried on. Ticonderoga, (p. v.,) or Lower Falls, contains 325 inhabitants. Upper Falls is a village of 40 houses, and Ti Street of 30. Settlements were begun in thistown by the French, seen after the commencement of the fortress in 1755 ; but they were soon broken up. During the French War many skirmishes and one general engagement took place in the town. The subsequent history of the fortress belongs to the general history of the country. Permanent settlement commenced immediately after the Revolution. The first church was St. Pauls, Prot. E.; and the first preacher, Rev. Mr. Harwood.
WESTPORT--was formed from Elizabethtown, March 24, 1815. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, near the center of the E. border of the co. The Schroon Mts. extend N. E.. and S. W. through the town, occupying nearly all of the w. half. A wide valley extends W. from Northwest Bay, breaking the continuity of this range and completely separating the highlands at Split Rock from the southern continuation of the chain. The Boquet and its branches drain the N. part, and numerous small streams flowing into the lake drain the remainder. About one-half of the surface is susceptible of cultivation. The soil is clayey along the lake shore and sandy among the mountains. Iron, leather, and lumber are largely manufactured, Westport, (p. v.,) formerly “Northwest Bay,'' contains the Essex Academy and 456 inhabitants. Wadhams Mills (p. v.) contains 25 houses. A small settlement was begun, and a mill built in the S. part of the town, before the Revolution. After that period, settlement was commenced by Charles Hatch, (first store and innkeeper,) Joseph Stacy, and Nathan Hammond. The first church (M. E.) was formed in 1800, and the first preacher was Rev. Cyrus Comstock.
WILLSBOROUGH--was formed from Crown Point, March 7, 1788, and named from Wm. Gilliland. A part of Peru was taken off in 1702, Jay in 1798, Chesterfield in 1802, and Essex and Lewis in 1805. A part of Peru was reannexed to this town upon the formation of Essex co. in 1799. It lies upon the shore of Lake Champlain, N. of the center of the co. The surface is rolling and in parts hilly. A range of highlands and isolated hills marks the course of the Boquet Mts., ending in the cliffs which overlook Perou Bay. The Boquet River flows through the S. E. corner. East of the river the soil is clayey, and W. a sandy loam. The falls upon the Belfast furnish an excellent water power. Iron is found in places; and the Black River limestone crops out, from which both quicklime and waterlime are obtained. Leather, lumber, and iron are largely manufactured. Willsborough Falls (Willsborough p. o.) contains 300 inhabitants. Settlement was commenced by Wm. Gilliland, a merchant of New York, in 1765. Mr. G., in 1764, purchased a tract of 2000 acres, intending to convert it into a manor. He succceeded in laying the foundation of quite a flourishing settlement, which was broken up during the Revolution. In 1784, Mr. G. returned, and commenced selling his land to settlers. Joseph Sheldon and Abraham Aiken, from Dutchess co., became the first purchasers, and located in 1784. The first church (Cong.) was organized before 1800.
WILMINGTON--was formed from Jay, March 27, 1821, as “Dansville.” Its name was changed March 22, 1822, and St. Armand was taken off in 1844. It lies upon the N. border of the co., W. of the center. A branch of the Au Sable Mts. occupies the N. W. border of the town, and another branch of the same range lies between the Au Sable Forks in the E. part. The highest peaks, 2500 to 3000 feet high, lie in the S. part, and, from them the surface declines toward the W. Wilmington Notch, in the S. W. corner, is a place worthy of note. Copperas Pond, near the foot of Whiteface, covers about 100 acres. Beds of iron ore are numerous. The soil is a sandy and gravelly loam, and is moderately fertile. Whiteface belonging to the Adirondack Range, has an elevation of 4,855 feet above tide. Wilmington (p. v.) contains 20 houses. Settlement was commenced, near the close of the last century, by Thaddeus and Leonard Owen, and Paul Thayer. The first church (M. E.) was formed in 1799.
 The name of Split Rock was applied to this promontory in consequence of about ½ acre of the extreme point being detached from the mainland by a chasm 10 feet wide, extending downward to near the water’s edge. It was once supposed that this mass was split off from the mainland by some great convulsion of nature, and writers have gravely asserted that 500 feet soundings have been taken in the chasm; but it is probably that the fissure was formed by the disintegration of the rock, which at this point contains iron pyrites and is easily acted upon by the elements. The height of this dissevered mass above the lake is about 30 feet.
 The name Adirondack is strictly applied only to the group of elevated peaks of which Mt. Marcy is the center, but by common usage it is now made to comprehend the whole system of mountains N. of the Mohawk.
 Pron. Bo-kwet. Probably from the French “baquet,” a trough. It is also said to have been named from Henry Boquet, an English officer; but the name appears on French maps previous to his residence in the country.
 $6000 was appropriated in 1853, and $5000 in 1854, for improving the log navigation of the Au Sable River. A lighthouse has been erected at Split Rock by the General Government. The proposed Sacketts Harbor and Saratoga R.R. has been surveyed across the S. corner of the co., and another route has been projected from Plattsburgh to Whitehall; but there is little prospect of either of these lines being soon finished.
 In that year George Throop and Levi Higby, in connection with Charles Kane, of Schenectady, began the manufacture of anchors at Willsborough Falls. For the first 10 years the ore was obtained in part from Canada, but principally from Vermont. A bed at Basin Harbor was the only one then known within the co. Mill and steamboat irons were afterward made, and the foundry was finally converted into a forge. Early and the foundry was finally converted into a forge. Early in the present century W. D. Ross erected a rolling mill on the Bouquet, for making nail plates for the factory at Fair Haven, Vt. About 1809, Archibald McIntyre and his associates erected works on a branch of the Au Sable, in the present town of N. Elba, designated as the “Elba Iron Works,” which were at first supplied from the vicinity, and afterward from the Arnold mine, in Clinton co. The forge was abandoned in 1815, after several years of prosperous business. The iron interest rapidly extended after the completion of the Champlain valley of the Au Sable and the surrounding region. The forges, rolling mills, and nail factories of this section are among the most extensive of the kind in the country. Bar, pig, and bloom iron of superior quality are produced in large quantities. Within a few years, anthracite coal has nearly superseded the use of charcoal in the furnaces along the lake shore. These establishments afford a home market for a large part of the agricultural products of the co. Most of the above dates and facts are condensed from Watson’s Ag. Survey of Essex Co., 1852, p. 814.
 The principal ores in this co. are magnetic, and they are separated from the stone by water and by magnetic machines. Hundreds of bbls. Of iron and sand are collected upon the shores of Lake Champlain and sold to the N.Y. stationers.
 David Watson and John Savage, of Wash. Co., were appointed commissioners to locate a site for the co. buildings, which were to be erected under the care of 3 commissioners appointed by the supervisors. The first co. officers were Daniel Ross, First Judge; Stephen Cuyler, Clerk; Thos. Stowers, Sheriff; and Wm. Gilliland, Surrogate.
 When the co. was formed, the new blockhouse in Essex, then Willsborough, was used as a courthouse and jail. By an act passed April 7, 1807, Elizabethtown was selected as the co. seat, and to this place the courts and clerk’s office were transferred upon the completion of the proper buildings, in 1814.
 This establishment is old, and in some respects inconvenient; but is spoken of as extremely well kept, and in this respect is one of the best in the State.
 The Reveille, the first paper in the co., was started at Elizabethtown, about 1810, by Luther Marsh. The Essex Patriot was published at the same place, in 1817-18, by L. and O. Person. The Essex County Times was started at Elizabethtown, by R. W. Livingston, and in 1833 sold to ______ Macomb, who continued it about 15 months. It was printed on an old “Ramage” press brought from Skaneateles, Onondaga co. Another paper was commenced at Elizabethtown, in Jan. 1848, by D. Truair, and removed to Keeseville in about 4 months. The Elizabethtown Post was established by Robert W. Livingston in 1851, and was subsequently united with the Northern Standard, of Keeseville. The Keeseville Herald was commenced in 1825 by F. P. Allen, and soon after passed into the hands of A. H. Allen, by whom it was continued, with a few interruptions, until 1841. The Keeseville Argus, edited by Adonijah Emmons, was begun about 1831, and continued 5 or 6 years. The Essex County Republican was established at Keeseville in 1839, and is now published by J. B. Dickinson. The Au Sable River Gazette was started at Keeseville about 1847, by D. Truair, and continued 5 or 6 years. The Old Settler, mo., was commenced at Keeseville by A. H. Allen in 1849, and was afterward removed to Saratoga Springs. The Northern Gazette was started at Keeseville in 1851, and continued several years. The Northern Standard was established at Keeseville in 1854 by A. W. Lansing, and is now published by A. W. Lansing & Son. The Essex County Republican was started at Essex about 1822 by J. K. Averill, and was continued by him, and by Walton & Person, until 1833. The Berean Guide was started in 1840, at Essex, by Rwev. M. Bailey, and continued 1 year. The Westport Patriot and Essex County Advertiser was commenced in 1845, at Westport, by D. Truair. The Essex County Patriot was issued at Essex, about 1847, by A. H. Allen. It was changed to The Westport Herald, and continued 6 or 7 years. The Essex County Times was published at Westport in 1851.
 A seigniory, extending 3 leagues along the lake shore and 2 leagues back, was granted, June 13, 1737, to Sieur Louis Joseph Robert, the king’s storekeeper at Montreal. Its northern boundary was to be half a league below the “Bacquet” (Boquet) River, and its southern 2 ½ leagues above. This territory embraced the present town of Essex and a large part of Willsborough. Another seigniory, extending 6 leagues along the lake and 5 back, was granted, Nov. 15, 1758, to Michael Chartier do Lotbiniere. It was called “D’Alainville,” and embraced the present towns of Ticonderoga, Crown Point, and Schroon. Settlements which commenced upon this grant were broken up by the English armies. Most of the seigniory was granted to officers and soldiers of the English army, in accordance to his majesty’s proclamation of Oct. 7. 1763. After the cession of Canada, the French proprietor presented his claims to the English Government, with no other effect than to create a considerable temporary alarm among the English settlers.
 See page 304.
 On his way to the frontiers, Col. Williams stopped at Albany and made his will, leaving a sum of money to found a free school in Western Mass. This legacy founded and gave the name to Williams College. In 1851the alumni of the college erected a monument to his memory on the spot where he was killed.
 The most enterprising of these rangers were Majs. Israel Putnam and Robert Rogers. The party commanded by the latter officer consisted of old hunters, accustomed to all kinds of hardships and privations. Among his officers was John Stark, afterward Gen. Stark of the Revolution. These parties hung upon the outskirts of the French forts, took of their sentinels, burned their villages, killed their cattle, destroyed their boats, and annoyed them in every possible manner.
 See page 668; Lossing’s Field Book of the Revolution; Bancroft’s Hist. U.S.
 Brother of Sir William Howe and Admiral How, English commanders during the Revolution. Lord Howe was a brave and enterprising officer, greatly beloved by the army, and his loss was deeply deplored.
 The fort and field works at Ticonderoga spread over and area of several miles, and the fortress at Crown Point embraced seven acres. The ruins of these works now visible still attest their extent and magnitude.
 Mr. Gilliland at first designed to lay the foundation of a vast baronial estate; and hence he sold no land, but leased it on the most favorable terms.
 A convention of the settlers was held March 17, 1775, (St. Patrick’s Day,) and a local, independent government was adopted. The management of affairs was intrusted to a moderator, two supts. of roads and bridges, three appraisers of damages, and a town clerk. Just before the Revolution, a scheme was devised to form a separate colonial government, embracing all the territory north of Mass. And between the Connecticut and to St. Lawrence Rivers. Philip Skene, the founder of “Skenesborough” (now Whitehall,) is believed to have been the leading spirit of this movement, and his appointment as gov. of the forts of Ticonderoga and Crown Point in June, 1775, seems to give color to this belief. See Journals of Congress, June 8, 1775; Watson’s Ag. Survey, Tr. Ag. Soc., 1852, p. 694.
 The capture of these forts, and of the armed schooner upon the lake, was of immense importance to the Americans, as it supplied them with a great amount of cannon and other munitions of war.
 Gen. Carlton offered a reward of $500 for the delivery of Gilliland in Canada. Sheriff White, of Tryon co., and a party of Tories and Indians, who attempted to capture him, were themselves captured and sent to Gen. Schuyler.
 Mr. G. assisted Arnold in the prosecution of his designs to the extent of his ability; and, in return for the kindness, Arnold, by an arbitrary stretch of power, destroyed his dwellings, mills, and stores, and nearly reduced him to poverty. In a memorial to Congress in 1777, Gilliland held the following truthful and prophetic language in regard to Arnold: --“It is not in mine, but it is in your power to bring him to justice. Bursting with pride, and intoxicated with power, -- to which he ever ought to have been a stranger, but which he has had art enough to obtain from you, -- he tyrannizes where he can. If temerity, if rashness, impudence, and error can recommend him to you, he is allowed to be amply supplied with those qualities; and many people think they ought to recommend him in a peculiar manner to Lord North, who, in gratitude for his having done more injury to the American cause than all the ministerial troops have had the power of doing, ought to reward him with a generous pension.”
 A heavy chain, 1000 feet long, and an immense boom, erected across the lake by the Americans at great labor and expense, were cut through in 2 hours.
 In this expedition the Continental standard left behind by St. Clair was recovered.
 For a long time there was a great mystery connected with these movements, which was afterward explained by the publication of the negotiations which took place between the Gov. of Canada and the “Vt. Council of Safety.”
 For some time he was confined in N.Y. for debt; but, regaining his freedom, he returned to the scene of his former enterprise. Here meeting with new disappointments and treachery, and becoming partially deranged by his misfortunes, he wandered into the wilderness and perished of cold and exposure.
 Among these public roads were one from Willsbourough Falls to Peru; another, known as the “Old State Road,” from Sandy Hill, along the Schroon Valley, to Canada Line; and another across the s.w. corner of the county from Canton to Chester. In 1790, Platt Rogers established a ferry across the lake, at Basin Harbor. He also built several roads, and a bridge over the Boquet at Willsbourough Falls. For constructing these and other public works, Rogers and his associates received a grant of 73,000 acres of unappropriated land.
 See page 235.
 The first settler of Keeseville was Robert Hoyle, who built the first bridge and sawmill and kept the first store, in 1802. It was first called “Long Chute” About 1812 the property came into the hands of Richard and Oliver Keese and John W. Anderson, who erected a woolen factory and iron works in 1813. The name was first changed to “Andersons Falls,” and afterwards to Keeseville. See Clinton co., town of Au Sable.
 Both Port Kent and Keeseville are centers of extensive and important iron districts.
 Alva Bosworth, Elihu Briggs, Edward Palmer, Levi Cooley, Dr. Clark, John and Benj. Macomber, John Page, and ______ Norton, were among the first settlers. The first child born was Thos. Rangam, and the first death that of Abel Handy.
 The census reports 5 churches; F. W. Bap., M. E., Presb., Prot. E., and R. C.
 The point which contains the ruins of this fortress is supposed to have been an important commercial mart previous to the French War; but now it contains only a single farm house.
 The Swedish traveler Kalm mentions the existence of this early settlement; and the “Journal of Major Rogers” speaks of villages, well filled barns, herds of cattle, and fields of grain. Chimney Point, upon the eastern shore of the lake, derives its name from the remains of early habitations found there by the present race of settlers.
 Among the first settlers after the Revolution were George Trimble, James Morrow, Aaron Townsend, Dennis Meagher, Andrew Hardy, Saml. Foot, and Elisha Rhodes. The first mill was a windmill, a short distance S. of the fort. James Morrow erected the first mill and kept the first inn and store after the Revolution. Washington visited Crown Point in 1784.
 Benj. Wooster was the first preacher after the Revolution. The first church (Cong.) was organized in 1804. The census reports 4 churches; 2 Cong., Me. E. , Union.
 Elizabethtown was named “Pleasant Valley” by the first settlers, and is now locally known as “The Valley.”
 The census reports 3 churches; Bap., Cong., M. E.
 See page 205.
 A blockhouse was built in this village in 1797, in consequence of the alarm occasioned by St. Clair’s defeat; and in 1799, upon the organization of the co., it was used for a co. courthouse, and continued as such until the erection of the co. buildings at Elizabethtown, under the act of 1807.
 See pages 299, 305.
 Among the first settlers after the Revolution were Danl. Ross, (first merchant and mill owner,) Isaac and Benj. Sheldon, Benj. Stafford, Danl. Murray, Hen. Van. Ormand, Dr. Colborn Clemens, (first physician,) David, Abram and Abner Reynolds, Nehemiah Payn, and James Eldrich. The first school was taught by Miss Towner. The first male teacher was Enoch P. Henry.
 In Oct. 1777, in this town, the retreating British garrison of Ticonderoga was attacked by a party of “Green Mountain Boys,” under Capt. Ebenezer Allen, and 50 men and all the military stores were captured.
 The census reports 6 chs.; M. E., Wes. Meth., 2 Bap., 2 Presb.
 Named from John Jay, then Governor of New York.
 Among the other first settlers were j. W. Southmaid, Joseph Storrs, John Purmort, Robert Otis, Ezekiel Lockwood, Nathl. Ray, Joseiah Way, and Joseph Gowler. Wm. Mallory built the first mill.
 The census reports 6 churches; Bap., Cong., and 4 M. E.
 A perpendicular cliff on the north side of this mountain, 300 to 500 feet high, gives to it its singular name.
 A most destructive flood occurred from excessive rains, Sept. 30, 1856; and the damage which this occasioned was increased by the breaking away of the State dam across the S. branch of the Au Sable, in this town. The testimony relating to this accident (forming a vol. of 368 pp.) was printed by order of the Canal Board, in 1858.
 Among the first settlers were Benj. Payne, Timothy Pangburn, Thos. Roberts, Zadock Hurd, Eli Hall, Thos. Taylor, Gen. Reynolds, and David Graves. The first child born was Betsey Payne; the first marriage, that of Thos. Dart and Cynthia Griswold; and the first death, that of Eli Bostwick. Asa A. Andreas taught the first school, and Zadock Hurd kept the first inn.
 Among the other early settlers were Dea. Putnam, Samuel Bishop, Charles, Saml., and Noah Lee, Ishmael H. Holcomb, Hooker and Timothy Woodruff and Eunice Newell; and the first death of an adult, that of Mrs. John Smith. Levi Parsons taught the first school.
 The census reports 1 M. E. church. A Meth. Church was formed in 1808.
 There is an extensive tannery at Olmsteadville, which makes the village.
 Among the other first settlers were Wm. Hill, (first mill owner), Thos. Leonard, Richard Miller, Abner Talman, James Cary, Philo Hawley, and A. P. and Asa Morse. The first settlements were chiefly made along the line of the Canton and Chester Road. The first child born was Francis West; the first marriage, that of Richard Miller and ______ West; and the first death, that of Elizabeth West.
 The census reports 3 churches; Bap., M. E., R. C.
 In 1852, 26,800 tons of ore were exported from Moriah to Penn., Vt., Va., Me., and Md. The quantity contracted for exportation from that town, in 1853, amounted to 107,500 tons, of which 16,000 were to Penn., 10,00 to Mass., 3500 to Va., 1500 to Ohio, 1500 to N. J., and 1000 to Me. – Tr. N.Y.S. Ag. Soc., 1852, p. 827
 The site and water power of Port Henry were granted to Benj. Porter in 1766. It is supposed that he erected a mill soon after, which was destroyed during the Revolution. After the war, he returned, and in connection with Robt. Lewis, of Albany, rebuilt the mill, which has remained up to a recent date. One of the first furnaces in the co. was erected here in 1824, by Ma. James Dalliba. It was a cold blast furnace, and was used for the manufacture of pig iron, and the casting of hollow ware and agricultural implements. Several extensive anthracite coal furnaces have lately been put in operation.
 The first child born was Alex. McKenzie, in 1785; the first marriage, that of John Ferris and Deborah Wilcox; and the first death, that of John Atwater, (by drowning.) Miss Abi Collins taught the first school. The first authorized ferry was granted to Robert Lewis, April 3, 1811, for 10 years.
 The census reports 5 churches; Bap., M. E., Presb., R. C., Union.
 James Chandler, Collins Hewitt, and Wm. Butler came in to reside in 1818. Among the other first settlers were Elijah Bissell, Abner Belden, David Pierce, Cromwell Catlin, and James Ramsey. The first child born was Nathl. P. Hewitt; the first marriage, that of Abner Belden and Bershelia Butler; and the first death, that of Eliza Butler. Harriet Chandler taught the first school.
 Among the other early settlers were Isaac Griswold Eb’r. Mack, Jonathan Bliss and son, Iddo Osgood, Jerm. Kneeland, James Porter, and Daninel McArthur. The first marriage was that of Elijah McArthur and Electa Brooks; and the first death, that of Arunah Taylor, who perished by cold in the woods. Fanny Dart taught the first school.
 Named from its location upon the upper branches of the Hudson.
 Among the first settlers were Randall Farr, (first innkeeper,) Wm. Pond, Samuel Norton, Wm. Everett, Benj. Cummings, Russell Walker, Wm. Mallory, Timothy Chellis, Hez’h Keep, and Titus Walker. The first death was that of Mrs. Halloway. Janet Post taught the first school.
 The first child born was Silas Crouch; the first marriage, that of Adrian Storrs and Lovina Hough; and the first death, that of ______ Goodspeed.
 This name is said to be a corruption of “Scharon,” and to have been applied in honor of the Duchess of Scharon, favorite of Louis XIV. Some say Schroon is derived from an Adirondack word, signifying a child or daughter of the mountain.
 The surface of this lake is so near the level of the Schroon River, which forms its outlet, that in seasons of flood the water flows into instead of out of it; hence its not inappropriate name.
 Among the other early settlers were George Moore, Elijah Garfield, James Livingston, Geo. Whitney, Cornelius Travers, Abel Tupp, and John Bowker. The first child born was John T. Leland; the first marriage, that of John Scribner and Silence Leland; and the first death, that of Mrs. Benj. Bowker. Clark Ransom taught the first school.
 The census reports 4 churches; Bap., M. E., Presb., Union.
 The Indian name “Tsinondrose,” or “Cheonderoga,” signifying “Braling Water,” and the French name “Carillon,” signifying a “Chime of Bells,” were both suggested by the noise of the rapids upon the outlet of Lake George.
 In 1852, 600,000 pieces of lumber were shipped from this point.
 Above 30 tons of black lead are manufactured per year; and the vein of graphite seems inexhaustible.
 Bodies of rangers from the vicinity of Fort Wm. Henry often carried their petty warfare up to the very walls of the fortress. Among the partisan officers distinguished in this warfare were Maj. Robert Rogers and Maj. Israel Putnam. The former named officer conducted no less than 25 parties to the invasion of this region. In 1758, at the head of a party of 180 men, he was attacked by a large party of French and Indians a short distance W. of the fort, and defeated, with the loss of 125 men. The remnant of the party escaped, but suffered great hardships before reaching a place of safety.
 See p. 298.
 When the fortress of Ticonderoga was surprised by Allen, in 1775, its garrison consisted of 48 men, commanded by Capt. Delaplace. The military stores captured consisted of 120 iron cannon, 50 swivels, 2 10 inch mortars, 1 howitzer, 1 cohorn, 10 tons of musket balls, 3 cart loads of flints, 30 new carriages, a large quantity of shells, a warehouse full of material sfor boat building, 100 stand of small arms, 10 casks of poor powder, 2 brass cannon, 30 bbls. of flour, 18 bbls. Of port, and a large quantity of other provisions.
 Among the first settlers were Charles Hay, Isaac Kellogg, (first merchant,) Wm. Hurlbert, Wm. Wilson, (first innkeeper,) Nathl.., Charles, Noah, and Manoah Miller, John Kirby, John and Robt. Hammond, Jedediah Ferris, Francis Arthur, Peter Deall, Elisha Belden, Gardner Shattuck, and Samuel Cook.
 There are 3 other churches; Bap., M. E., and R. C.
 Among the other first settlers were John Halsted, Jesse Brayman, John Stringham, John and Bouton Lobdell, Aaron Felt, Joseph Fisher, Abram Slaughter, Joseph Storrs, and Jacob Southwell. The first death was that of Mrs. Webster Felt.
 The census reports 3 churches; M. E., Cong., and Bap.
 See pages 299, 301.
 Among the first settlers were Aaron Fairchild, Jonathan Lynde, Martyn Pope, Melchor and John Hoffnagle, John and Wm. Morehouse, Hooker Low, Stephen Taylor, Elisha Higgins, Peter Payne, and Daniel Collins. The first school was taught by ______ Scott, in 1787. The first death was that of Thos. Hyer, in 1786. Jonathan Lynde and Stephen Taylor kept the first inn, John Hoffman the first store, and Danl. Ross built the first mill.
 The census reports 3 churches; Cong. M. E., and Union
 Here the Au Sable is compressed to a few feet in width, and breaks through the mountain barrier. Whiteface rises nearly perpendicularly, upon one side, to a height of 2000 feet; and another mountain, upon the opposite side, is but a little less in height. In the midst of its rapid and tortuous course through this passage, the stream leaps down a perpendicular precipice of 100 feet.
 Its waters are strongly impregnated with sulphate of iron: hence its name. Copperas is also found in the rocks in the vicinity, formed by the decomposition of iron pyrites; at some future time it will probably be manufactured for commercial purposes.
 Whiteface derives its name from a landslide, which has laid bare the rocks upon its S. E. slope, giving it a whitish gray appearance. This mountain is nearly isolated; and from its summit is obtained one of the finest and most extensive views in Northern N.Y.
 Among the other early settlers were Cyrus Wilson, Isaac Peck, Reuben and Daniel Hamblin, Danl. Ray, John Blanchard, Z. Gray, and Nathl. Warner. The first marriage was that f Danl. Hamblin and Keziah Ray; and the first deat, that of John Blanchard. Esther Kellogg taught he first school; Reuben Sanford kept the first inn, Elias Wilson the first store, and Leonard Owen built the first mill.
 The census reports 2 churches; Cong., M. E.