Gazetteer of the State of New York: Embracing a Comprehensive View of the Geography, Geology, and General History of the State, and A Complete History and Description of Every County, City, Town, Village, and Locality, by J. H. French, Published by Pearsall Smith, Syracuse, N.Y.: 1860; pp. 307-313.




         This county was formed from Clinton, March 11, 1808, and named in honor of Benjamin Franklin. A small portion was annexed to Essex co. March 22, 1822. It contains an area of 1,718 sq. mi., and is centrally distant 130 mi. from Albany. It lies upon the northern frontier, between St. Lawrence and Clinton counties. Its surface is mostly level in the N., undulating and hill in the center, and broken and mountainous in the S. The Au Sable Mts. occupy the S. E. portions; Mt. Seward, 5,100 feet above tide, is the highest peak. There are several other elevated peaks; but their heights have never been ascertained by actual measurement. The plateau of the central and the valleys of the s. part of the co. have an elevation of about 1,600 feet above tied. The N. W. corner, including the townships of Bombay, Fort Covington, Westville, and portions of Constable and Moira, is underlaid by calciferous sandstone. The soil upon this rock is generally a heavy clay. Next S. of this region is a belt about 8 mi. wide, extending N. E. and S. W., underlaid by Potsdam sandstone. A strip next to the calciferous sandstone, about 4 mi. wide, has a sandy soil, and the remainder a fine fertile loam, mixed with clay. The underlying rock in the central and s. portions of the co. is gneiss; and the soil is of a light, sandy nature, nearly unfit for cultivation. Upon approaching the mountainous region toward the S. the soil becomes more and more sterile, and large tracts are valuable only for their timber and iron ore. Bog iron ore is found in considerable quantities along the line of junction of the calciferous and Potsdam sandstones, and in times past it has been quite extensively used in the manufacture of bar iron.


         The co. is mostly drained by tributaries of the St. Lawrence, the principal of which are the Chateaugay, Salmon, Little Salmon, Deer, St. Regis, and Racket Rivers. The Saranac River flows through the S. E. corner. In the southern wilderness are immense numbers of lakes, some of which are several miles in extent. Their general elevation is about 1,600 feet above tide, and they are so located that slight improvements only are needed to connect them, and to form a communication between the head waters of streams flowing in opposite directions. In the N. part the people are engaged in the various branches of agriculture, the soil yielding a good return in spring grain, and in potatoes. The whole region, however, is best adapted to pasturage, and dairying forms the leading pursuit. In the central and S. parts the people are mostly engaged in lumbering. The manufacture of starch has become an important business within the last few years. [1]


The principal work of internal improvement in the co. is the Ogdensburgh R. R., (formerly Northern R.R.,) extending through Moira, Bangor, Malone, Burke, and Chateaugay. This road was completed in 1850, and has been of immense value to the co., though a total loss to the stockholders. Steamboats from the St. Lawrence land regularly at Fort Covington, and occasionally at Hogansburgh, during the summer. The Salmon River has been improved for log navigation, and a portion of the Au Sable improvement is within the limits of the co.


         The co. seat is located in Malone Village. [2] A courthouse and jail, in one building, was erected on the w. bank of Salmon River in 1811-13, and a new stone jail in 1852. [3] The co. poorhouse is located upon a farm of 110 acres, 2 mi. S.W. of the village. It was built in 1826, at a cost of $1,200 and has since been burnt and rebuilt. There are two newspapers in the co., both published at Malone. [4]


         A tract of 10 mil. by 40, on the E. side of this co., formed a part of the old Military Tract [5] , a portion in the N.W. corner, of 24,000 acres, was reserved by the St. Regis Indians [6] , and the remainder of the co. was included in Great Tract No. 1 of the Macomb Purchase [7] . Wm. Constable, agent and part owner of the last mentioned trace, and the executors of his estate, sold the northern part, and actively assisted in promoting settlement. [8]


         The earliest settlement in the co. was made at St. Regis, by a colony of Indians from Caughwaga, on Lake St. Louis [9] , and from Oswegatchie, under Father Anthony Gordon, a Jesuit, about 1760. They are now known as St. Regis Indians, and number about 1,000, of whom 420 reside in this co., and the remainder on the N. side of the national boundary, which passes through the village. [10] During the Revolution a portion of the Indians joined the Americans; and Louis Cook, one of their number, received a colonel's commission from Gen. Washington. In the war of 1812 a part of the tribe joined the British and a part the Americans; and they are thus historically divided into British and American parties. [11] This tribe is gradually increasing in numbers, although, from their filthy habits, they are frequent sufferers from virulent epidemic diseases. They are mostly Catholics, -- a Catholic mission being supported among them. A few profess to be Methodists. [12] Two schools are sustained by the State, though they are thinly attended, and apparently of little benefit. The first white settlements were made in Chateaugay in 1796, and in other towns in the tow northern ranges in 1800-02, by emigrants from Vermont. At the commencement of the war of 1812 the population of the co. numbered about 2,500. In 1813-14 it became the seat of important military events, in the abortive attempt to invade Canada. Upon the withdrawal of the troops from French Mills in Feb. 1814, the co. was overrun by the enemy, who visited Chateaugay, Malone, and Hopkinton, and seized a considerable amount of military stores. [13] In 1832, the cholera appeared at St. Regis, spreading a panic throughout the whole region. Since the completion of the R. R., systemic efforts have been successfully  made to bring into market the valuable timer in the central and southern parts of the co.



BANGOR [14] -- was formed from Dickinson, June 15, 1812. Brandon was taken off in 1828. It is an interior town, lying N.W. of the center of the co. Its surface is gently undulating, with a general northerly inclination. The principal streams are the Little Salmon and Deer Rivers. The underlying rock is Potsdam sandstone, appearing only in the valley s of the streams. The soil is sandy in the N. and a clay and loam in the S. South Bangor, (Bangor p. o., ) North Bangor, (p. o.,) and West Bangor, (p.o.,) are small villages. The first settlement was made in 1806, and the town was rapidly settled along the Central Road and St. Lawrence Turnpike. Religious meetings were first held by Alexander Proudfit, in 1808. A Cong, society was formed at N. Bangor at a very early period. [15]



BELLMONT [16] -- was formed from Chateaugay, March 25, 1833. Franklin was taken off in 1836. It occupies a wild, rocky region on the E. border of the co., N. of the center, and has a general inclination toward the N. The Owls Head is a prominent elevation upon its W. border. Its streams are Chateaugay, Trout, and Little Trout Rivers, and the E. branch of Salmon River. Among the hills are several beautiful lakes, the principal of which are Lower Chateaugay and Ragged Lakes, and Ingraham and Round Ponds. A considerable portion of the town is unfit for agricultural purposes, and valuable only for its timber. The settlements are chiefly confined to the vicinity of an E. and W. road extending through the N. part. [17] Chateaugay Lake is a p. o. in the N. E. part. There is a Presb. society in town, formed from the church at Malone.



BOMBAY [18] --was formed from Fort Covington, March 30, 1833. It lies in the N.W. corner of the co., and one corner borders upon the St. Lawrence. The surface is generally level, and the soil is sandy in the S. and a deep, fertile, clayey loam in the N. The principal streams are the Racket, St. Regis, and Little Salmon Rivers, and Pike Creek. The St. Regis is navigable to Hogansburgh, at which place is a good water power. [19] Hogansburgh [20] (p.v) lies at the head of navigation on the St. Regis River, 2 mi. from its mouth. Pop. 250. St. Regis is an Indian village, in the Indian Reservation, [21] lying mostly in Canada. Pop. In this co. 200. Bombay Corners (Bombay p.o.) and South Bombay are hamlets. The first improvement was made in 1811, by Michael Hogan, who had acquired the title to Township No. 1 of Macomb's Purchase. [22] In 1818, Hogansburgh was laid out as a village and considerable improvements were made. In the same year a road was laid out across the Indian Reservation to Fort Covington. The title to the township passed from Hogan to Robert Oliver, of Baltimore. In 1822, settlers began to arrive quite rapidly, and in two or three years most of the land not covered by the Reservation was taken up. There are 3 churches in town; 2 M. E. and R. C. A Prot. E. church was also commenced some years since, but is not yet finished.



BRANDON [23] --was formed from Bangor, Jan. 23, 1828. It lies W. of the center of the co., and embraces a territory 6 to 8 mi. wide and 47 mi. long, extending to the S. border of the co. The N part is moderately hilly, and has a general inclination toward the N; the S. part is broken and mountainous, and mostly unfit for cultivation. The principal streams are the Little Salmon, Deer, F. Branch of the St. Regis, and Racket Rivers, all flowing across the town in a N. W. direction. A great number of lakes and ponds lie among the mountains in the central and southern parts. The waters of the Saranac Lake and Stony Creek Pond are separated only by a narrow strip of land, forming the only portage for canoes between Lake Champlain and the Racket River. The soil is generally light and sandy and poorly adapted to cultivation. Along the river courses and borders of the lakes the soil may be cultivated at some future period. The settlements are confined to the extreme N. border. Within the past few years the lumber trade has received considerable attention here, and large numbers of pine logs have been floated down the Racket River. The first settlement was made in 1820. [24] There is no village, p. o., or church in town.



BURKE [25] --was formed from Chateaugay, April 26, 1844. It lies on the N. border of the co., E. of the center. Its surface is undulating and has a general inclination toward the N. It is watered by Trout and Little Trout Rivers. A swamp extends along the N. border. The soil is clay, sand, and loam. Burke (p. o) is a hamlet on Little Trout River. Burke Hollow, (Andrusville p. o.) is a small village on the 0. R. R. North Burke is a p. o. The first settlement was made in 1796-98, by Jehial Barnum, Noah Lee, and others. There are 3 churches in town. [26]



CHATEAUGAY [27] --was formed from Champlain, March 15, 1799. "Harrison" (now Malone) was taken off in 1805, Bellmont in 1833, and Burke in 1844. A part was annexed to Jay, (Essex co.,) in 1822. The surface is rolling, with a northerly inclination. The principal streams are the Chateaugay River and its branches. The river has worn a deep channel through the drift deposits and Potsdam sandstone, forming a wild and peculiar feature in the landscape. [28] Half a mi. E. of the village of Chateaugay is an intermitting spring, rising from the sand, sometimes flowing in sufficient quantities to carry a mill, and at others perfectly dry. It has no regular periods of intermission, sometimes flowing steadily one or two years, and again only a few weeks. Bubbles of nitrogen gas are emitted with the water. There is a constant gas spring 1 mi. N. 5. of this. The soil is a clayey loam interspersed with clay. Chateaugay [29] (p. v.) lies on the plain, a little E. of the deep, narrow valley of the Chateaugay River. [30] Pop. 360. The first settlement was commenced in 1796, at the village, and was the first in the co. [31] Within the next five years many families came in from Vermont. In 1812 a blockhouse was built for protection against invasions by the enemy. In the fall of 1813, Gen. Hampton was encamped here for several weeks, with a force designed to co-operate with Gen. Wilkinson in the invasion of Canada; but late in Nov., he returned to Plattsburgh without accomplishing his object. In the spring of 1814 the enemy invaded the place, pressed teams, and took away a considerable amount of provisions left by the American army. There are 4 churches in town. [32]



CONSTABLE [33] --was formed from "Harrison," (now Malone,) March 13, 1807. Fort Covington was taken off in 1817, and Westville in 1829. The surface is rolling, with a northerly inclination. The streams are Trout River and its tributary Little Trout River. The soil is principally a light, sandy loam. A strip of sand lies along the S. border, and of swamp along the N. Constable (W. Constable p. o.) is a small village upon Trout River. Trout River (p. o.) is a hamlet near the N. line, and East Constable is a p. o. The first settlement was commenced near the S. line, in 1800. [34] The first church (Presb., organized as Cong.) was formed in 1817." [35]



DICKINSON [36] --was formed from "Harrison," (now Malone,) April 4, 1808. Bangor was taken off in 1812, and Moira in 1828. It lies on the W. border of the co., and is 47 mi. in length. The N. part is rolling and hilly, and has a soil of sandy loam of good quality; the central and S. parts are mostly sterile and rocky mountain regions. It is watered by the same streams as Brandon, and among the hills are great numbers of small lakes. Dickinson (p. o.) is on the St. Lawrence Turnpike. East Dickinson and Dickinson Center are p. offices. Thomasville is a small settlement on Deer River, founded by John Thomas in 1839. The principal settlements are in the N. part. [37] There are in town 2 churches; M. E. and F. W. Bap.



DUANE [38] ---was formed from Malone, Jan. 24, 1828. Harrietstown was taken off in 1841. Brighton was taken off in 1858. It is an interior town, lying S. E. of the center of the co. Its surface is broken and mountainous, and the soil is light and sandy. Much the greater part of the town is unfit for cultivation. The principal streams are the Deer River and the a. branch of St. Regis River. Magnetic iron ore has been found in considerable quantities. There is no village in town. Duane is a p. o. Jas. Duane, of Schenectady, son-in-law of Wm. Constable, acquired by marriage the title to this town, and began settlement here in 1823-24. A forge was built in 1828, and a high furnace in 1838, both of which were run a few years and supplied with ore found in the town. [39] After making about 600 tons of iron, the works were abandoned, with the loss of the entire capital invested in them. There is but one church (M. B.) in town.



FORT COVINGTON [40] --was formed from Constable, Feb. 28, 1817. Bombay was taken off in 1833. It lies on the N. border of the co, W. of the center. Its surface is level, or gently undulating. Salmon River, the principal stream, is navigable to Fort Covington Village. The soil in the N. is a rich, clayey loam, and in the S. a light, sandy loam. Fort Covington [41] (p. v.) is situated in the N. W. part of the town, upon Salmon River. Pop. 894. The first settlements were made by French families, about 1796, around "French Mills." Settlers from Vt. began to arrive about 1800. [42] Much of the timber near Salmon River was stolen before this, and sold in the Montreal market. Soon after the battle of Cryslers Field the American army passed up Salmon River and took up winter quarters at "French Mills." [43] In Feb. the place was evacuated, [44] and immediately taken possession of by the enemy. [45] The Fort Covington Academy, incorp. April 21, 1831, has been changed to a district school. The census reports 4 churches. [46]


FRANKLIN [47] --was formed from Bellmont, May 20, 1836. It lies on the E. border of the co., S. of the center. Its surface is broken and mountainous, and it has an elevation of 1200 to 2000 feet above tide. The principal streams are the Saranac, which flows across the S. E. corner, and the head branches of the Salmon River. Among the mountains are numerous ponds and lakes. The soil is sandy, and scarcely fit for agricultural purposes, except along the streams. Iron ore abounds, and has been worked to some extent. The settlements are mostly confined to the S. E. corner, and the people are chiefly engaged in lumbering. The old Port Kent and Hopkinton Road passes diagonally through the town, and a plank road extends from Franklin Falls to Keeseville. Franklin Falls [48] (p.v.) contains 12 houses, and Vermontville 20. Alder Brook and Merrillsville are p. offices. The first settlement was made at Franklin Falls, in 1827, at which time a forge and sawmill were erected." [49] In town are 5 large gang sawmills, and several small manufactories of buckskin leather, mittens and gloves. There are 2 churches in town, M. E. and R. C.



HARRIETSTOWN [50] --was formed from Duane, March 19,1841. It is the S. a. corner town of the co. Its surface is very rocky and mountainous, and its soil alight, sandy loam, generally unfit for cultivation. Mt. Seward lies along the S. border. [51] It is the least populous and wealthy town in the co. It is principally drained by the Saranac. Among the mountains are a great number of small lakes, the principal of which are the Lower Saranac, Big Clear, and St. Regis. There are no villages or churches in town. Saranac Lake, on the line of Essex cc., is a p. o. The first settlers located on the North West Bay Road, about 1812. [52]



MALONE [53] --was formed from Chateaugay, March 2, 1805, as "Harrison." The name was changed to "Ezraville," April 5, 1808, and to Malone, June 10, 1812. Constable was taken off in 1807, Dickinson in 1808, and Duane in 1828. It is an interior town, lying N. of the geographical center of the co. and S. of the center of population. Its surface is level in the N. and broken and hilly in the S. The principal stream is the Salmon River, which flows northerly through the town in a deep valley worn by its waters, and nearly its whole course in town is a succession of rapids and cascades. Along the N. border are extensive pine plains. The soil in the N., where not covered by light drift deposits, is fertile and well improved, but in the s. it is sandy and unproductive. An iron ore, from which a paint resembling sienna is manufactured, has been discovered in the S. part. Potsdam sandstone, of an excellent quality for building, has been extensively quarried near the village. Malone, [54] (p. Y.,) the co. seat, and the only incorp. village in the co., is pleasantly situated on Salmon River. Pop. 1993. It is the seat of the Franklin Academy, [55] and is the most important intermediate station upon the Ogdensburgh R. R. [56] The village is supplied with spring water by an incorp. company. [57] Titusville (p. o.) is a small village at the Great Falls, on Salmon River in the S. part of the town. [58] The first settlements were made near Malone Village, about the beginning of the present century, by emigrants from Vt. [59] An arsenal was built at the village in 1812, and sold in 1850. [60] In 1813-14 the place was visited and plundered by the British. The first church (Cong.) was formed in 1806-07, by Ebenozer Hibbard and Amos Pettengill. Rev. Ashbel Parmelee was the first pastor, and the first settled minister in the co. [61]



MOIRA [62] --was formed from Dickinson, April 15, 1828. It lies on the W. border of the co., N. of the center. The surface is generally level, with a slight inclination toward the N. The principal streams are Little Salmon River and Lawrence Brook. The soil is a sandy loam, generally fertile. Moira Corners (Moira p.  o.) is a small village near the center. Brushs Mills, [63] (p. o.,) on Little Salmon River, is an important wooding station on the R. R. This town fell to the share of Gilchrist and Fowler, upon apportionment, and was first settled by Appleton Foote, as agent, in 1803. [64] Luther Bradish," Robert Watts, and Peter Kean afterward became the owners respectively of the x., middle, and s. thirds of the town. There are 3 churches in town [65]



WESTVILLE [66] --was formed from Constable, April 25, 1829. It lies near the center of the N. border of the co. The surface is nearly level, with a slight inclination toward the N. It is drained by Salmon River, upon which are several falls, affording a good supply of water power. The soil is a fertile, clayey loam. Bog iron ore, found on the s. border, has been used to some extent in forges in the town. A sulphur spring, of some local notoriety, lies near the center of the N. border. Westville (W. Constable p. o.) is a small village on Salmon River. This town was held by the Constable family; and for many years Wm. Bailey, of Chateaugay, and Albon Mann, were agents. In 1822 the unsold portions were sold to Edward Ellice, of London. The first settlements commenced about 1800, by emigrants from Vt. [67] There are 4 churches in town. [68]



BRIGHTON--was formed from Duane, Nov. ___, 1858. It embraces Township 18 and the S. half of Township 15 of Great Township No. 1 of Macomb's Purchase. The settlements are chiefly in the E. part. The inhabitants are mostly engaged in lumbering. There is no village or p. o. in town. (This town was formed after the remainder of the letter-press of this co. was stereotyped; and hence it is inserted in this place.)




[1] Within 10 years, 40 factories for the manufacture of starch from potatoes have been erected in the co. When potatoes are less than 30 cts. per bushel, the business is considered profitable; but since the completion of the R. R. they have at times been worth much more to transport to the city markets.

[2] The first co. officers were Ebenezer Brownson, First Judge; Wm. Bailey, Joshua Nichols, and Asa Wheeler, Judges; Jas. S. Allen, Clerk; John Wood, Sheriff; Joshua Nichols, Surrogate; and Ezekial Payne and Oliver Brewster, Coroners.

[3] Before the court house was completed, courts were held in the academy.

[4] The Franklin Telegraph was the first paper published in the co. It was first issued at Malone, in 182, by Francis Burnap, and in 1829 it was removed to Potsdam. The Northern Spectator was published at Malone from 1830 to 1835, successively by John G. Clayton, Gen. P. Allen, and F. P. Allen. The Palladium was begun in March, 1835, at Malone, by F. P. Allen. It is now publishes as The Frontier Palladium, by F. T. Heath and J. K. Seaver. The Franklin Republican was begun in 1827, at Fort Covington, by J. K. Averill, and continues under several owners till 1833. The Franklin Gazette was begun in 1827, at Fort Covington, by F. D. Flanders. In 1847 it was removed to Malone, where it is still published by the original owner. The Salmon River Messenger  was begun in n1850, at Fort Covington, by Jas. Fisk. During the year it passed into the hands of J. S. Sargent, and was published as The Messenger for a few months. The Jeffersonian was begun in 1853, at Malone, by J. R. Flanders, and was issued about 2 years.

[5] Embracing the present towns of Chateaugay, Burke, Bellmont, and Franklin. Township 7 was patented to Jas. Caldwell; No. 8 to Col. McGregor; Nos. 9 and 10, to different parties in later times. -- Hough's Hist. of St. Lawrence and Franklin Cos.

[6] From 1816 to 1825 the Indians ceded 10,000 acres of this reservation to the State. The remainder of the lands are held in common, and are managed by trustees elected annually.

[7] Among those who became directly proprietors under this title were John McVickar, Hezekiah B. Pierrepont, (executor of Wm. Constable,) Wm. S. Smith, Abijah Hammond, Richard Harrison, Theodosius Fowler, Jonathan Dayton, Robert Gilchrist, and James D. Le Ray.

[8] These townships were named and numbered as follows the original proprietors:--
            1. Macomb.                 10. Williamsville.        19. Cheltenham.

            2. Cormachus.             11. Westerly.               20. Margate.

            3. Constable.               12. Ewerettaville.         21. Harrietstown.

            4. Moira.                     13. Dayton.                 22. Loughneagh.

            5. Bangor.                   14. Ennis.                    23. Killarney.

            6. Malone.                   15. Fowler.                  24. Barrymore.

            7. Annastown.             16. Johnsmanor.          25. Mt. Morris.

            8. St. Patrick.               17. Gilchrist.               26. Covehill.

            9. Shelah.                    18. Brighton.               27. Tipperary.


[9] An expansion of the St. Lawrence above the Lachine Rapids, in Canada.

[10] This line was surveyed after the treaty of 1793, and intended to be run on the 45th degree of N. latitude; but a new survey in 1818 showed that the line was run too far N. By the treaty of 1842, the old line was restored, and permanent monuments were placed at the crossing of roads, and navigable streams, and at intervals of one mile through the forests.

[11] This distinction is hereditary from mother to son, and the annuities of each government are bestowed accordingly, without reference to the locality on either side of the line.

[12] The Black River Conference has supported a mission at Hogansburgh since 1847.

[13] There is good reason to believe that some of the inhabitants were traitors to their country, and supplied the enemy with cattle and provisions and kept hem informed in regard to public movements. Extensive frauds were perpetrated upon the National Treasury, soon after the war, in the way of claims for alleged damages and losses in Wilkinson's campaign; but the plot was detected, and some of the guilty ones were lodged in the State prison. A most remarkable scheme to defraud the State and non-resident landholders was devised about 1818, and continued until effectually ended by law in 1822. This consisted in the voting of excessive bounties for the destruction of wolves and other noxious animals, to be paid by the towns and co. As the law then existed, the State allowed as much bounty as the co.; and the result of the scheme was to throw almost the entire burden of the tax upon non-residents and landholders; but, to fender the home burden endurable, large sums were remitted by the claimants toward paying the residents' taxes. The bounties amounted on grown wolves to $60 per head, and led to shameless frauds, and the issue of great numbers of certificates upon the heads of dogs and other animals, and upon the same head several times over. In one instance a deer's head was passed for that of  a wolf. These certificates were bought by co. officials, and passed the co. audit. A commission was appointed by law to visit the locality and search into the fraud; and, although no convictions were obtained, a large sum was saved to the State. The commissioners stated that they found these certificates, to some extent, the  "currency of the co." The total number of bounties issued and sums allowed, in 1820-21-22, were as follows:--Wolves, 929, $51,685; panthers, 25, $1075; foxes, 587, $1842.50; bears, 93, $243; besides small sums for minor animals, amounting, in all, to $55,521.50, or nearly $12.25 to every man, woman, and child in the co. Those who had been concerned in this affair quickly sunk into merited obscurity, and have since remained objects of public contempt.

[14] This town embraces township No. 5 of Great Tract No. 11, of the Macomb Purchase.

[15] Among the first settlers were Benj. Seeley, Joseph Plumbs, Jehial and James Barnum, Chester Tuller, Robert Wilson, Joel Griffin, G. Dickinson, H. Conger, J. Bowen, and L. Sylvester. At this time Daniel McCormack owned the N. half of the town, Samuel Russell taught the first school, in 1808.

[16] Named in honor of Wm. Bell, an early proprietor. It
township 5, and parts of 7 and 9, of the old Military Tract.

[17] Recently settlement has commenced upon No. 9, in the S. part.

[18] Named by Hogan, whose wife had resided at Bombay, in India. It embraces Macomb, of No. 1 of Great Tract No. 1 of Macomb Purchase, and the St. Regis Indian Reservation.

[19] A controversy in regard to title has prevented the full improvement of this power.

[20] Formerly "GrayÕs Mills." It was the residence of the late Rev. Eleazar Williams, the reputed Bourbon Louis XVII.

[21] The lands of this reservation are partly leased to whites; but the cultivation of all is extremely slovenly and improvident.

[22] Previously to the settlement, most of the valuable timber had been stolen by parties from Canada.

[23] Named from Brandon, Vt., from which place the first settlers emigrated. It embraces the townships of "St. Patrick," "Westerly," "Ennis," "Gilchrist," "Margate," "Killarney," and "Cove Hill," or Nos. 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, and 26, of Great Tract No. I.

[24] Josiah Hastings, Aaron Conger, Wilson Spooner, Luther Taylor, and John Thomas, settled in town in 1820; and Andrew and Henry Stevens, Levi Conger, G. W. Taylor, Clark Adams, Daniel K. Davis, Jonathan H. Farr, and Orrin Wellington, in 1821.

[25] Named in honor of Edmund Burke, the British statesman.

[26] Bap., Presb., and M. E.

[27] 2 Pronounced Shat-a-ghe; probably of French origin.

[28] About a mile above the village this ravine is 200 feet deep, and in it is a waterfall of 50 feet.

[29] On the 30th of June, 1856, a destructive tornado passed over the village, more or less injuring every building in it. In the course of 6 mi. 185 buildings were destroyed, unroofed, or moved from their foundations; and several lives were lost.

[30] The R.R. crosses this valley on an embankment 160 feet above the river, and 800 feet long.

[31] The first settlers were Benj. Roberts, Saml. And Nathan Beeman, Levi Trumbull, Joshua and Kincade Chamberlain, Ethan A. Roberts, and Jared Munson. Nathan Beeman in his youth resided near Ticonderoga, and acted as guide to Ethan Allen when he surprised that place in May, 1775. He died in this co., on Marble River, 1 ½ mi. N.E. of the village. In 1803-04 a forge was built, by Wm. Bailey, 3 mi. above the village, and run a short time, being supplied with bog ore.

[32] Bap., M.E., Presb., and R.C.

[33] Named from Wm. Constable, agent and part proprietor. It embraces the E. part of township No. 3 of Great Tract No. I.

[34] Among the first settlers were Jona. Hapgood, (1800,) Chris. Austin, (1800,) Wm. Cooper, Solomon Cook, Eli Titus, Saul Clark, and James Welch. A. Mead taught the first school, in the summer of 1806. Dr. Soloman Wyman was the first physician. The first sawmill was built by James Welch, in 1803, and the first grist mill, soon after the war, by Joseph Colburn.

[35] There are in town 3 churches: Presb., Bap., and M. E.

[36] This town embraces the townships of "Annastown," "Williamsville," "Dayton," "Johnsmanor," "Cheltenham," "Loughneagh," and Mount Morris, "or Nos. 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22, and 25, of Great Tract No. I.

[37] Among the first settlers were William Thomas, Jonathan and Jesse D. Rice, and Reuben Cady.

[38] Named from James Duane, proprietor and first settler. It embraces the townships of "Ewerettaville," "Fowler," and "Brighton," or Nos. 12, 15, and 18 of Great Tract No. I.

[39] By an act of May 20, 1841, a company was chartered by the name of  "The Franklin Native Steel Manufacturing Co.;" but it was never organized. The making of steel directly from the ores of this region has p[roved to be practically a failure. A few years since, silver was said to be discovered; but it has never been successfully worked.

[40] Named from Brig. Gen. Leonard Covington, who mortally wounded at Cryslers Field and buried here. It embraces the W. part of the township of "Cormachas," or No. 2 of Great Tract No. I., and a part of the original St. Regis Reservation, since ceded to the State.

[41] Formerly called "French Mill." It is situated on a mile square reserved by the Indians in 1796. This tract was leased by the Indians to Wm. Gray, in 1793, and assigned to Jas. Robertson, of Montreal, in 1798. These Indian leases occasioned much difficulty concerning title, which was finally settled by commissioners, after the purchase of the E. part of the reservation, in 1816-18 –HoughÕs Hist. of St. Law. And Frank. CoÕs.

[42] Mills were built at a very early period, and were swept away by a flood in 1804.

[43] Here a fearful mortality occurred among the troops, on account of exposure to the rigors of a northern winter in tents and slight board shanties. The medicines and hospital stores had been lost or destroyed on the passage down the St. Lawrence, nor could fresh supplies be obtained nearer than Albany. The surrounding country was mostly a wilderness; and the army of Gen. Hampton the fall previous had exhausted the resources of the inhabitants, and, consequently, provisions were of a bad quality and were procured with difficulty.

[44] As an appropriate finale to an imbecile enterprise, the retreating army destroyed the boats on the river, sunk 60 tons of biscuit, and destroyed all the public property too heavy for transportation. The enemy soon completed the work of destruction.

[45] A few years after the war, an extensive series of frauds upon government was perpetrated at this place. They consisted of fictitious claims for damages, in which the documents were fictitious forged, and the parties, witnesses, and magistrates were perjured.

[46] Asso. Ref. Presb., (Scotch,) Wes. M., Bap., and R.C., (St. MaryÕs.)

[47] This town includes No. 10, and a part of No. 9, of the old Military Tract.

[48] Formerly called "McLCenathan Falls," from the proprietor. On the 29th of May, 1852, the entire village, consisting of 23 houses, store, tavern, extensive lumber mills, and a large amount of lumber, was destroyed by running fires. Loss, $30,000.

[49] Among the first settlers were Wm. McClenathan, Jas. Mallory, Horace Gould, John Griffin, Harry Wood, Richmond and Davis Spaulding, Simeon French, and John Hough. The first birth was that of Sanfourd Hough; and the first death of an adult, that of Mrs. H. Wood. McClenathan kept the first inn and store and built the first mill and forge.

[50] Named from Harriet, daughter of Wm. Constable and wife of Jas. Duane. It embraces the townships of "Harrietstown", "Barrymore", and "Tipperary", or Nos. 21, 24, and 27 of Great Tract No. I.

[51] Mt. Seward, named from Wm. H. Seward, was called by the Indians "On-no-wan-lah," the big eye.

[52] Among the first settlers were Isaac Livingston, Isaiah C. Flanders, Pliny Miller, Wm. Kelly, and Nehemiah White.

[53] Named "Harrison" from Richard Harrison, proprietor; "Ezraville" from Ezra L'Hommedieu, of Suffolk co.; and Malone from a family related to Harrison. It embraces the townships of "Malone" and "Shelah", or Nos. 6 and 9 of Great Tract No. I.

[54] Incorp. 1853.

[55] The academy building is finely located in the W. part of the village.

[56] The machine and repair shops of the R.R., located here, are on a magnificent scale, and are fitted up in a superior style. The repairs of the Potsdam and Watertown R.R. rolling stock are also done here.

[57] The Malone Water Work Co., Incorp. March 23, 1857. Capital, $15,000.

[58] Henry B. Titus commenced improvements in this part of the town, but building mills and a scythe factory, in 1831. After several yearsÕ suspension, improvements and settlements have been renewed under James H. Titus, of N.Y

[59] Among the first settlers were Enos, Nathan and John Wood, Newell Conger, Luther Winslow, Jehial Berry, Noah Moody, Roswell Wilcox, and David and Lyman Sperry. The first child born was Malone, daughter of L. Winslow. The first sawmill was built in 1804, by N. and J. Wood.

[60] The proceeds of this sale were applied toe the improvement of the arsenal green and parade ground; and a further sum of $500 was appropriated for the same purpose in 1858.

[61] The census reports 6 churches; Cong., Prot. E., Union, M. E., Bap., and R.C.  In Nov. 1857, Rev. Barnard McCabe, Catholic priest, was accidentally burned to death.

[62] Named from the Earl of Moira. Embraces "Moira," or No. 4 of great Tract No. I. The name was applied to the township long before the incorporation of the town.

[63] Among the first settlers were Benj. Seeley, Jonathan Lawrence, Joseph Plumb, and David Bates. Schools were established in 1807.

[64] Mr. Bradish resided here for several years. He represented the co. in the Assembly in 1828-29-30-36-37-38, and was a resident here when elected Lieut. Gov. in 1838.

[65] Cong., R.C., and Union, (the last belonging to the M.E. and Christian denominations.)

[66] Named from the village, so called from its location in the old town of Constable.

[67] Among the first settlers were Amos Welch, _____ Haskins, Elisha Sabins, Saml. Fletcher, John Reed, Alex. McMillen, Silas Cushman, John Livingston, Jas. And Thos. Wright, and Alric and Albon Mann. The first sawmill was built by Amos Welch. The first school was taught by Samuel Russell, in 1806.

[68] Presb., M.E., Univ. and Union.

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